How to Make a Solar Still: The Ultimate Purification Device

How to Make a Solar Still: The Ultimate Purification Device

Have you ever raise a question in your mind, we live in a world where the one-third part is filled with the water still some affected areas do not get the potable water? Why Like This? We have lots of water in the world, but we have not a technology to purify it.

Water is the basic needs, and it listed above the food and clothes and in this generation internet. Without the last two things let we survive but water, it is not available easily.

Places where water availability is in large scale, their local people are wasting water without even thinking, eventually on other side people are happy if they got water from anywhere, whether it is clean or not. They can’t even afford water filer, even though they don’t know what filter is and all, they just quench their thirst and take the plunge of the diseases and die. Save water it is not easily available in the future.

Now let’s see the simplest purification methods which can be used to purify the water. There are many water purification, RO Filteration System, But these filter’s reach is too low as compare to water crisis-affected area.

So, What we can do? We are going to see some non-high tech process to purify the water. Methods that you can use in the Emergency Situation, Places where having potable water is a dream.

You Know How Rainfall comes, basic behind the rainfall is Hydrological Cycle, and here we are taking the idea from Hydrological Cycle and then decide to make Solar Still.

Solar Still is a hand made and non-high tech water filtration system. You can use it at sea, at deserts, and some poverty-stricken area who they can’t afford today’s water filtration system.

Lets Deep Into the Solat Still.

What is Solar Still?

The basic thing you know that solar still is a natural non-high tech water purification system, the idea of solar still comes from Hydrological Systems. It is a natural factor drive but artificial water filter system. For Natural Driving Factor, Sun is playing a driving factor role.

Solar Stil Purifies Water, Put Purify aside we can say it distills Sun Energy performs the water distillation process.

Solar still
Solar still

So, What happened in the Solar Still Distillation Process, Let us start with the brief, Evorporation Process takes the driving seat here and then it evaporates the dirty water. By the end product, you will get collected pure water. Generally, this process follows in Solar Still.

Water That purifies with using solar energy it safe for drinking and cooking. Without any external fuels, you will get purified water from natural elements.

The good thing about the Solar Still Distillation Process is it clears the impurities which found in the seawater. It doesn’t take any external forces to purify the contaminant having water.

Solar Still Process take more benefits of the Sun Light and its Energy. Fossil Fuels Retaining enough heat from the sunlight, and then you will get clean water in the form of vapor. With condensed process collected water keeps cool. Then you can use this water for drinking, cooking, washing, bathing. Also, you can preserve this water for emergency water storage and water shortage. At those emergencies, you can use these collected potable water.

Next Phase it How Solar Still Works?

If you want to know the mechanism behind the Solar Still, Before let’s see natural Hydrological Cycle and how it is work.

Like Hydrological System, the Same process is followed in the Solar Still. Which Water Resource is direct contact with the Sunlight, if we think about large scale, then Ocean water is for sure.

The same thing happens with another large scale natural water resources like river streams and large ponds.

So, What Happens when Sunlight is in contact with the Ocean Water. Ocean water has more Saline then other resources, saline water is evaporated due to sunlight energy, and with the vapor, it is transformed into the clouds. Clouds which are preemptively created are there, and more vapor is stuck in the clouds.

Then, This Vapor performed the process to transform into the condensed liquid. Then we enjoy the rain, this condensed liquid make the soil happy and thus in the form of the rain we get fresh, natural water.

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Now, Let’s Move On Towards the Basic Solar Still.

Basically, It follows the two trough, this is the basic solar still, and it will process through these two troughs.

In One Troght we have put impure, contaminant water and second trough is empty, which we have planned to collect pure water.

At one point we have to put the water glass and where exactly we got the evaporated condensed water. And Bottom Trough is filled with the contaminant water. And it is covered with the Black Film, Why Black Film? It helps to absorb more Sunlight and produce more energy to vaporized the water. You can use black glass plat also.

Now the Same Cycle that we have seen in Hydrological Cycle, this process it works here.

Sunlight is striking its energy on the black glass surface, and then it generates the energy for evaporation process, Now Vapor is touched the black glass surface. Through Condensation, glass is filled with purified water.

In the Solar Still and Hydrological Cycle, there is the main two processes have a major role, Evopaoration, and Condensation.

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Evaporation Process

First Step and first process that happens when you distill water by using distillation process. Just Think Straight, What Impure Water Contains?  One Impurities, Contaminants and another is Pure Water.

Exactly Right, Evaprotation PRocess is work separation process here, through vapor it separates the pure water one side and let rest of all impurities leave at one place.

What follows the process, in dirty water storage, sunlight is striking there, and then solar energy is taking a handle of absorption. Just like energy is absorbed, the heating process is started in the water.

By the day increasing temperature of the sun is also increasing at that time, dirty water is converted into the stream. Then Take the purify water, collected it in the clean water container.

To boiling impure water it needs the higher boiling water so that it could be separate the Impurities and water. Water with having a low boiling point is not suitable. Generated Stream needs to move towards the glass ceiling and then what happens, rest of the impurities.

Condensation Process

Second Step of the Distillation process, It is also the main process or stage like evaporation process.

We know that evaporated stream is moving towards to glass ceiling. Where actually condensation process is started. The stream that touches the glass surface it covert into drops and it loses the heat energy from itself. It Converts into the pure water droplets.

Now Gravity follows to collect those droplets in the clean water container. Due to Gravity Water Droplets are slipped downward towards where you put empty water container to collect tons of droplets.

These Collected droplets, now you can say collected water is free from the bacteria, minerals, and other impure contaminants.

With these two processes, you will get contaminant-free water in your glass. This is how Solar Still Mechanism Works.

Types of the solar still

Now, We know how Solar Still is work, and now we are going to see basic types of solar still. Basically, there are two types of a solar still, that are approachable to distill water.

  1. Single Basin Solar Still
  2. Multi-Basin Solar Still

Now, Let’s watch out brief information about both of these types.

  1. Single Basin Solar Still

As mentioned in the name, in single basin solar still, there are two basins. One of them contains dirty water and another one to collect fresh and distilled water.

Now, Shape is the essential part of solar still, various types of solar still shapes are there such as Spherical Solar Still, Hemispherical Solar Still, Concave Wick Solar Still, triangular pyramid solar still. This is the shape of the cover you can select according to your convenience.

You can integrate with a solar or electric heater, which provides additional energy on the dirty water. It helps in the quick vaporization process.

  1. Multi-Basin Solar Still

Same holding basin as suggests in the name, Multi-Basin Solar Still. Here you can use more than one basin to holds the dirty water.

Generally, Additional Basin is used glass with black film or painting. Extra basins help to increase the temperature of the lower basin. The upper basin is a medium of the transfer of solar radiation to lower basins.

Internally in the multi basin, you can use additional glass and as per glass your solar still names. Like Double Basin Solar Still, Triple Basin Solar Still, If the shape of the basin consists like a triangle then it is called a Triple Basin Pyramid Solar Still. Single Slope Double Basin Solar Still which consists of flat and angled shape for the basin.

How to Make a Solar Still?

In case any emergency situation happens so what to do at that time. We need to learn to make a solar still, which helps in an emergency situation and then with that water you can survive at least until the situation is not stable.

By Learning how to make a solar still, you can add one skill which helps in the lifesaving scenario.

For your kind of information, Sun Energy heat the soil, and then one plastic cover is work as a barrier which helps in the condensation process. And then water is collected in the under sink water collector.

Which material you need to make solar still.

Now, Follow the below steps to make Emergency Solar Still

  • Dig a Pit which is 4 feet wide and 3 feet deep
  • Within the pit, you have to dig another pit, size of water container so it can be easily fit there
  • If you get the loose vegetation such as plant leaves, then disperse all leaves inside the pit and make sure it does not bother water container

Note: Plants Leaves or any of loose vegetation helps to add moisturization in the distillation process.

  • You have Platic tube to get water from the water collector, Attach this tube using tape inside the water container.
  • Now, It’s time to cover the pit with the plastic sheet, Make Sure that Plastic Sheet does not touch the bottom surface of the pit.
  • Use Rocks to place properly plastic sheet above the pit, both of the sides put their rocks, which prevents plastic from flying off.
  • Technically to make an internal slope 45 Degree is Efficient, just above the Water Container. So As assuming put the third rock just above the water container.
  • Note: You need to cover plastic sheet properly, So it prevents dirt to enter inside the pit and internal moisture to outside. Same way close the tube mouth with cap.
  • After this setup, Do not open the Plastic Cover, Otherwise, moisture will fade out.

Advantages of the Solar Still

  • You will get a balanced taste of the water as compared to commercial water filter and boiler. Because of the PH Level of the Water, In Water Filter System PH level decreases while here it remains constant.
  • Cost-Effective Water Distillation System.
  • Non-Conventional Energy is used to distill the water. There is no need to use external energy source for water distillation through Solar Still.
  • Easy to maintain, You set up independently.

The only Drawback we can say that it is time-consuming. We have seen the above method, with using this method you can get only 1 Liter Water in 24 Hours of Span. But this lengthy process is a constant process, and It depends on you how much time you have put there set up.


Unlimited Energy from Sun and which used in the Solar Still and you will get enough purified water. Simple Method to follow, it saves your money from Commercial Water Filter and its maintenance. If you see the Advantages then it more then disadvantages, you think that it purifies a limited amount of water. But it’s not. Efficiency comes through the designs.

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